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Table 5 Laboratory examination

From: Urticaria: recommendations from the Italian Society of Allergology, Asthma and Clinical Immunology and the Italian Society of Allergological, Occupational and Environmental Dermatology

First levelBlood count; Kidney function
Liver function
Indices of inflammation
Total serum IgE
Screening thyroid hormones and autoantibodies to thyroid
Second level (only if history is indicative)Parasitological examination of stools (3 samples)
Autoimmunity
Autologous serum skin test
Anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies
Skin prick test or specific IgE to Anisakis simplex
Third levelD-Dimer dosage and assessment of coagulation
Assessment of complement
Measurement of antibodies to viral agents (EBV, HBV, HCV, CMV…)