Skip to main content

Table 1 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis causative antigens

From: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a complex lung disease

Antigen Source Disease
Microbes
 Alternaria species Wood or wood pulp Woodworker’s lung
 Aspergillus clavatus Moldy grains Malt-worker’s lung
 Aspergillus species Tobacco mold Tobacco-worker’s lung
 Aspergillus species Moldy malt Malt-worker’s lung
 Aspergillus versicolor Animal bedding Dog house disease
 Aureobasidium pullulans Moldy sequoia dust Sequoiosis
 Aureobasidium species Contaminated water Sauna-taker’s disease
 Bacillus subtilis Detergent enzymes Detergent-worker’s lung
 Botrytis cinerea Grape mold Winegrower’s lung or Späetlase lung
 Candida albicans Saxophone mouthpiece Sax lung
 Cephalosporium Sewage Sewage-worker’s lung
 Cryptostroma corticale Moldy maple bark Maple bark–stripper’s lung
 Merulius lacrymans Dry rot lung
 Mixed amoeba, fungi, and bacteria Cold mist and other humidifiers, air conditioners Nylon plant or office worker’s or air conditioner’s lung, ventilation pneumonitis
 Mycobacterium avium Contaminated water Hot tub lung
 Mycobacterium species, Gram negative bacilli Metal-cutting fluid Machine-worker’s lung
 Mucor stolonifer Paprika Paprika-splitter’s lung
 Penicillium casei Cheese mold Cheese-washer’s lung
 Penicillium chrysogenum Moldy wood dust Woodworker’s lung
 Penicillium frequentans Moldy cork Suberosis
 Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (micropolyspora faeni) Moldy hay Farmer’s lung
 Thermoactinomyces vulgaris Moldy hay, compost Farmer’s lung, mushroom-worker’s lung, composter’s lung
 Thermoactinomyces sacchari Sugar cane residue Bagassosis
 Thermophilic actinomycetes Moldy plant materials Farmer’s lung
 Trichosporon cutaneum Mold in Japanese homes Summer-type HP
Animals
 Animal fur protein Animal fur Furrier’s lung
 Avian proteins Bird excreta, blood, or feather Bird-breeder’s lung, bird-fancier’s lung, pigeon-breeder’s lung
 Gerbil proteins Gerbil Gerbil-keeper’s lung
 Fish Fish meal dust Fishmeal-worker’s lung
 Mollusk shell protein Mollusk shell dust Oyster shell lung
 Ox and pork protein Pituitary snuff Pituitary snuff–taker’s lung
 Rat proteins Rat urine or serum Rodent-handler’s lung
 Silk worm larvae proteins Silk worm larvae Sericulturist’s lung
 Wheat weevil Flour Miller’s lung
Plants
 Coffee Coffee bean dust Coffee-worker’s lung
 Lycoperdon species Puffballs Lycoperdonosis
 Soybean Soybean hulls Soybean-worker’s lung
Chemicals
 Anhydrides Plastics Chemical-worker’s lung, plasticworker’s lung, epoxy-worker’s lung
 Bordeaux mixture Vineyard fungicide Vineyard-sprayer’s lung
 Isocyanates Paints, plastics Paint-refinisher’s lung
 Pauli’s reagent Pauli’s reagent lung
 Pyrethrum Insecticides Insecticide lung
Metals
 Cobalt Hard metal lung disease
 Beryllium Berylliosis
  1. Derived and adapted from Costabel et al [20]