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Table 1 Children/adolescents food allergy specific QoL questionnaires

From: Quality of life in patients with food allergy

Questionnaire #Items Domains/covered issues Age Completed by Result Reliability Validity Patients included in development References
Food allergy quality of life-parental burden (FAQL-PB) 17 Family, school and social events, time employed to prepare foods, physical and mental state 0–17 Parents parents whose children had multiple (>2) food allergies were more affected than parents whose children had fewer allergies Internal consistency (test–retest) Internal: inter-item correlations; external: criterion validity, construct, content Yes Cohen et al., USA [26]
Food allergy impact scale (FAIS) 32 Family and social events, field trips, parties, sleepovers and playing at friends’ houses 0–18 Parents Daily family life (Meal preparation and family social activities) Internal consistency (test–retest) Internal: not proven; external: content, face validity Yes Bollinger et al., USA [55]
Food allergy parent questionnaire (FAPQ) 18 Parental anxiety/distress, psychosocial impact of allergies, parental coping/competence, and family support 0–18 Parents Greater number of food allergies, positive history of anaphylaxis: higher scores on the anxiety/distress and psychosocial impact subscales. Internal consistency good for the anxiety/distress and psychosocial impact subscales Internal consistency (test–retest) Internal: factor analysis; external: face-validity, content No LeBovidge et al., USA [56]
Child health questionnaire parental form-28 (CHQ-PF 28) 28 Issues related to children, parents and family 9 Parents Lower scores for physical functioning and role/social limitations Not proven Not proven Yes Östblom et al., Sweden [57]
Food allergy self-efficacy scale for parents (FASE-P) 21 Managing Social activities precaution and prevention. Allergic treatment food allergen identification seeking information about food allergy 0–18 Parents Poorer self-efficacy was related to egg and milk allergy; self-efficacy was not related to severity of allergy Internal consistency External: discriminative, face-validity, construct, convergent Yes Knibb et al., UK [22]
Pediatric allergic disease quality of life questionnaire (PADQLQ) 26 Practical problems, symptoms, emotional problems 6–16 Children A potentially useful outcome measure in the evaluation of systemic treatments in children with multisystem allergic disease Internal consistency Internal: inter item-correlations; external: construct, longitudinal Yes Roberts et al., UK [58]
Food allergy quality of life questionnaire-parent form (FAQLQ-PF) 30 Emotional impact; food-related anxiety; dietary and social restrictions 0–12 Parents Domains and total score improved significantly at pos-challenge time-points for pre-challenge and post-challenge. Poorer quality of life at baseline increased the odds by over 2.0 of no improvement in HRQL scores 6-month time-point Internal consistency (test–retest) Internal: inter-item correlations, factor analysis, ceiling/floor effect; external: face-validity, content, convergent/discriminative, construct Yes DunnGalvin et al., Ireland [21]
Food allergy quality of life questionnaire-child form (FAQLQ-CF) 24 Allergen avoidance and dietary restrictions; emotional impact; risk of accidental exposure; 8–12 Children Discriminated between children who differed in number of food allergies (>2 food allergies) vs. < or = 2 food allergies Internal consistency (test–retest) Internal: inter-item correlations; external: face-validity, content, convergent/discriminative, construct Yes Flokstra-de Blok et al., The Netherlands [24]
Food allergy quality of life questionnaire-teenager form (FAQLQ-TF) 23 Allergen avoidance and dietary restrictions; emotional impact; risk of accidental exposure; 13–17 Children Discriminated between children who differed in number of food allergies (>2 food allergies vs. < or = 2 food allergies) Internal consistency (test–retest) Internal: inter-item correlations; external: face-validity, content, convergent/discriminative, construct Yes Flokstra-Blok et al., The Netherlands [23]
Food allergy quality of life assessment tool for adolescents (FAQL-teen) 17 Impact of food allergy-related limitations, perception of food allergy as a burden; fear for allergic reactions; disappointment for carrying the adrenaline auto-injector 13–19 Children Areas most troubling included limitations on social activities, not being able to eat what others were eating, and limited choice of restaurants Internal consistency External: face-validity, discriminative, Cross-sectional construct validity Yes Resnick et al., USA [39]
You and your food allergy 34 Social well-being and independence, support, day-to-day activities, family relations and emotional well-being 13–18 Children Discriminates by disease severity Internal consistency (test–retest) Internal: inter-item correlations; external: convergent/discriminative, construct Yes MacKenzie et al., UK [40]