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Table 3 Elevated IgE: Etiologies and Evaluation

From: Regulation and dysregulation of immunoglobulin E: a molecular and clinical perspective

Main category Sub-Category Examples Diagnosis
Atopy Respiratory Rhinitis, asthma, SAM ST/RAST, PFT, Chest CT scan
  Food allergy Peanut/shrimp allergy Food ST/RAST, Challenge
  Dermatological Eczema, urticaria RAST/Patch, biopsy, culture
  Other Allergic Fungal Sinusitis ST/RAST/Sinus imaging
Immune Deficiency Mixed T and B Omenn syndrome Flow, Immune tests
  Syndromic DiGeorge, WAS, HIES Genetic, platelet, clinical
  Dysregulation IPEX Treg cell studies
  Humoral Selective IgA deficiency IgA level, functional antibody
Infection Bacterial Pertussis, S. Aureus Cultures, serology, clinical
  Fungal Aspergillus, Candida Cultures, biopsy, serology
  Viral EBV, CMV, HIV Serology, PCR, cultures
  Mycobacteria Leprosy, TB Clinical, biopsy, culture
Parasitic infestation Helminth Strongyloid, others Clinical, serology, stool exam
  Protozoan Malaria Clinical, blood smear
Malignancy Hematological Myeloma, Lymphoma SPEP***, Bone marrow
  Solid tumor Lung/colon/Breast Radiology, biopsy
Inflammatory Vasculitides Kawasaki, PAN*, CSS** ANCA, biopsy
  Inflammatory Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid factor, CCP****
Dermatological Blistering disease Bullous pemphigoid Biopsy, antibody
  Idiopathic Alopecia areata Clinical, biopsy
Systemic disease Renal Nephrotic syndrome Urine protein, biopsy
  Intoxication Medications, alcohol History, toxicology
  Pulmonary Cystic fibrosis CFTR Mutation, sweat chloride
Others Miscellaneous RA, burns, Nicotine Serology, history etc
  1. * PAN - Polyarteritis nodasa, **CSS - Churg-Strauss Syndrome, ***SPEP - serum protein electrophoresis, ****CCP - cyclic citrullinated peptide