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Table 1 Characteristics of participating children

From: Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life

  Total n (%) Eczema1 n (%) Controls n (%) P-value2
Gender:     
   -Male 11 (52.4) 4 (44.4) 7 (58.3) 0.67
Mode of delivery:     0.67
   -Vaginal 10 (47.6) 5 (55.6) 5 (41.7)  
   -Cesarean 11 (52.4) 4 (44.4) 7 (58.3)  
Maternal history of atopy 12 (57.1) 7 (77.8) 5 (41.7) 0.18
Term delivery3 17 (81.0) 7 (77.8) 10 (83.3) 1.00
Birthweight (g), mean (SD) 3319 (688) 3192 (395) 3415 (851) 0.24
5-minute APGAR, median 9 9 9 0.50
Breastfed 11 (52.4) 6 (66.7) 5 (41.7) 0.39
Daycare attendance 5 (23.8) 1 (11.1) 4 (33.3) 0.34
Use of antibiotics4 3 (18.8) 1 (16.7) 2 (20.0) 1.00
Measures of bacterial diversity:     
DGGE bands5, mean (95%CI):     
   -1 month of age 4.4 (3.6–5.1) 3.8 (2.6–4.9) 4.8 (3.8–5.9) 0.10
   -4 months of age 5.3 (3.8–6.7) 3.9 (2.3–5.4) 6.5 (4.2–8.8) 0.06
Shannon index6, mean (95%CI):     
   -1 month of age 0.66 (0.55–0.76) 0.53 (0.38–0.67) 0.75 (0.63–0.88) 0.01
   -4 months of age 0.77 (0.62–0.91) 0.59 (0.38–0.81) 0.92 (0.76–1.08) 0.02
  1. 1 Defined as parental report of physician-diagnosed eczema at or before 6 months of age. 2Mann-Whitney P-values for the comparison between cases with eczema and controls.
  2. 3Birth between 37 and 41 weeks of gestation.
  3. 4Maternal report of antibiotic administration to the child
  4. 5Number of denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands in each sample
  5. 6Shannon H' index calculated using the relative intensity of all bands in each sample