Oral mite anaphylaxis by Thyreophagus entomophagus in a child: a case report
© Iglesias-Souto et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 20 October 2009
Accepted: 25 November 2009
Published: 25 November 2009
Sensitization to Thyreophagus entomophagus, a storage mite, is uncommon and might produce occupational respiratory disorders in farmers. We present the first case of a child suffering anaphylaxis produced by ingestion of contaminated flour with Thyreophagus entomophagus.
Thyreophagus entomophagus is a storage mite, usually sited in farms , but not in house dust of households . Sensitization to mite species might produce occupational respiratory disorders in farmers [1, 3]. However, it is unusual to live in urban houses or to produce symptoms by ingestion and there is no any report of child affected.
Hidden allergens  in allergic individuals are still a big issue . Among others, hidden live organisms inside foodstuffs can provoke episodes of anaphylaxis in sensitized patients . Matsumoto et al described the first case of oral mite anaphylaxis (OMA) after eating storage-mite-contaminated food by a mite . Further, some other groups have reported symptoms of asthma  or OMA [9, 10] by mite-contaminated foodstuffs. Several species of mites, such as Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae or Blomia tropicalis have been linked with the OMA [9, 11, 12], so called Pancake syndrome. However, Thyreophagus entomophagus has been only reported by Blanco et al . This is the first report of anaphylaxis by Thyreophagus entomophagus in a child. Furthermore, it is the first time that a specific nasal provocation test with Thyreophagus entomophagus has been performed.
In our patient, the culprit foodstuff was a, previously cooked, home-made crêpe, This is in line of Sanchez-Borges et al, who have concluded that anaphylaxis might occur after the ingestion of heated or unheated mite-contaminated foods study . In same study, authors described 28 patients with anaphylaxis triggered by ingestion of wheat-containing foodstuffs, and concluded that OMA might be more prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries than previously recognized .
Surprisingly, our patient had also clinical history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity, which is uncommon in children. Some authors pointed out the possible link of OMA with and NSAID hypersensitivity [9, 14, 15]. Furthermore, some other authors have hypothesized about a subset of individuals with a particular susceptibility for both OMA and NSAID hypersensitivity. Same authors hypothesized saying that drug hypersensitivity is coming first before than OMA called as a new triad .
In paediatric population, there events are more uncommon. Matsumoto and Satoh observed recently paediatric patients with OMA in Japan . Wen et al described a paediatric case report of OMA in an 8-year-old Taiwanese, who was also co-sensitized to several mites including Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae or Blomia tropicalis. Sanchez-Borges also described a paediatric patient developed OMA . As we describe above, we present the first report of anaphylaxis by Thyreophagus entomophagus in a child with previous sensitization to other mites. However, it is currently unknown the cross-reactivity with other mites. More and bigger studies are needed to search this possible cross-reactivity. Using fresh new flour bags could prevent these types of events in sensitized children. Mite growing should be avoided with this simple procedure of using new bags. Alternatively, previously opened bags should be transfer to plastic bags and stored inside refrigerator to avoid high humidity and temperature, optimal conditions for mite growing .
Declaration of sources of funding: Víctor Matheu is recipient of a grant from "Convenio Instituto de Salud Carlos III- Comunidad Autónoma de Canarias (Programa de Intensificación de la Actividad Investigadores Clínicos 2007-2008-2009).
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